By Michael Nielsen One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria. Shereshevsky's boss at the newspaper had noticed that Shereshevsky never needed to take any notes, but somehow still remembered all he was told, and had suggested he get his memory checked by an expert. Luria began testing Shereshevsky's memory. He began with simple tests, short strings of words and of numbers.
Galileo became an accomplished lutenist himself and would have learned early from his father a scepticism for established authority,  the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation, an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm, as well as the results expected from a combination of mathematics and experiment.
Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy. The youngest, Michelangelo or Michelagnoloalso became a noted lutenist and composer although he contributed to financial burdens during Galileo's young adulthood.
Michelangelo was unable to contribute his fair share of their father's promised dowries to their brothers-in-law, who would later attempt to seek legal remedies for payments due.
Michelangelo would also occasionally have to borrow funds from Galileo to support his musical endeavours and excursions. These financial burdens may have contributed to Galileo's early desire to develop inventions that would bring him additional income.
When Galileo Galilei was eight, his family moved to Florencebut he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.
The Italian male given name "Galileo" and thence the surname "Galilei" derives from the Latin "Galilaeus", meaning "of Galilee ", a biblically significant region in Northern Israel.
In it he made a point of quoting Acts 1: She is buried with him in his tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence. Despite being a genuinely pious Roman Catholic,  Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba.
They had two daughters, Virginia born in and Livia born inand a son, Vincenzo born in Both girls were accepted by the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives. Livia took the name Sister Arcangela and was ill for most of her life.
Vincenzo was later legitimised as the legal heir of Galileo and married Sestilia Bocchineri. To him, it seemed, by comparison with Life of groot essay heartbeat, that the chandelier took the same amount of time to swing back and forth, no matter how far it was swinging.
When he returned home, he set up two pendulums of equal length and swung one with a large sweep and the other with a small sweep and found that they kept time together. It was not until the work of Christiaan Huygensalmost one hundred years later, that the tautochrone nature of a swinging pendulum was used to create an accurate timepiece.
However, after accidentally attending a lecture on geometry, he talked his reluctant father into letting him study mathematics and natural philosophy instead of medicine.
Galileo also studied disegno, a term encompassing fine art, and, inobtained the position of instructor in the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno in Florence, teaching perspective and chiaroscuro.
Being inspired by the artistic tradition of the city and the works of the Renaissance artists, Galileo acquired an aesthetic mentality. While a young teacher at the Accademia, he began a lifelong friendship with the Florentine painter Cigoliwho included Galileo's lunar observations in one of his paintings.
Inhis father died, and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. Inhe moved to the University of Padua where he taught geometry, mechanicsand astronomy until His multiple interests included the study of astrologywhich at the time was a discipline tied to the studies of mathematics and astronomy.
Cardinal Bellarmine had written in that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun".
For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth's surface sped up and slowed down because of the Earth's rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun.
He circulated his first account of the tides inaddressed to Cardinal Orsini. As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure. If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day.
Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart. Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors.
It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer Il Saggiatore inhis last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider controversy over the very nature of science itself. Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto.
Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth,  and since it moved in the sky more slowly than the moon, it must be farther away than the moon.
Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on Comets published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiduccialthough it had been largely written by Galileo himself.
In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.
The Assayer was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance. Scientific opposition came from Tycho Brahe and others and arose from the fact that, if heliocentrism were true, an annual stellar parallax should be observed, though none was.
Copernicus and Aristarchus had correctly postulated that parallax was negligible because the stars were so distant. However, Brahe had countered that, since stars appeared to have measurable size, if the stars were that distant, they would be gigantic, and in fact far larger than the Sun or any other celestial body.
In Brahe's system, by contrast, the stars were a little more distant than Saturn, and the Sun and stars were comparable in size. In Decemberthe Grand Duchess Christina of Florence confronted one of Galileo's friends and followers, Benedetto Castelliwith biblical objections to the motion of the earth.
According to Maurice Finocchiaro, this was done in a friendly and gracious manner, out of curiosity. Prompted by this incident, Galileo wrote a letter to Castelli in which he argued that heliocentrism was actually not contrary to biblical texts, and that the bible was an authority on faith and morals, not on science.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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