In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in study area, 31 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various parameters. Chemical index like percentage of sodium, sodium ad-sorption ratio, and residual sodium carbonated, permeability index PI and chloroalkaline indices were calculated.
The reduced downstream river flow may cause: Water withdrawal poses a serious threat to the Ganges.
In India, barrages control all of the tributaries to the Ganges and divert roughly 60 percent of river flow to irrigation  reduced fishing opportunities.
The Indus River in Pakistan faces scarcity due to over-extraction of water for agriculture. The Indus is inhabited by 25 amphibian species and fish species of which 22 are found nowhere else in the world. Fish populations, the main source of protein and overall life support systems for many communities, are also being threatened  reduced discharge into the sea, which may have various consequences like coastal erosion e.
Current water withdrawal from the river Nile for irrigation is so high that, despite its size, in dry periods the river does not reach the sea.
Increased groundwater recharge, waterlogging, soil salinity[ edit ] Looking over the shoulder of a Peruvian farmer in the Huarmey delta at waterlogged and salinised irrigated land with a poor crop stand.
This illustrates an environmental impact of upstream irrigation developments causing an increased flow of groundwater to this lower-lying area, leading to adverse conditions.
Increased groundwater recharge stems from the unavoidable deep percolation losses occurring in the irrigation scheme.
The lower the irrigation efficiency, the higher the losses. This may cause the following issues: The increased level of the water table can lead to reduced agricultural production.
As a result, the soil is no longer leached and soil salinity problems develop stagnant water tables at the soil surface are known to increase the incidence of water-borne diseases like malariafilariasisyellow feverdengueand schistosomiasis Bilharzia in many areas.
High nitrate levels in drinking water can be harmful to humans, particularly infants under 6 months, where it is linked to "blue-baby syndrome" see Methemoglobinemia. Reduced downstream river water quality[ edit ] Owing to drainage of surface and groundwater in the project area, which waters may be salinized and polluted by agricultural chemicals like biocides and fertilizersthe quality of the river water below the project area can deteriorate, which makes it less fit for industrial, municipal and household use.
It may lead to reduced public health. Polluted river water entering the sea may adversely affect the ecology along the sea shore  see Aswan dam.
The natural buildup of sedimentation can reduce downstream river flows due to the installation of irrigation systems. Sedimentation is an essential part of the ecosystem that requires the natural flux of the river flow.
This natural cycle of sediment dispersion replenishes the nutrients in the soil, that will in turn, determine the livelihood of the plants and animals that rely on the sediments carried downstream.
The benefits of heavy deposits of sedimentation can be seen in large rivers like the Nile River. The sediment from the delta has built up to form a giant aquifer during flood season, and retains water in the wetlands.
The wetlands that are created and sustained due to built up sediment at the basin of the river is a habitat for numerous species of birds.
This has been known to happen in the Sanmenxia reservoir in China. Shifting more towards mass irrigation installments in order to meet more socioeconomic demands is going against the natural balance of nature, and use water pragmatically- use it where it is found  Affected downstream water users[ edit ] Water becomes scarce for nomadic pastoralist in Baluchistan due to new irrigation developments Downstream water users often have no legal water rights and may fall victim of the development of irrigation.
Pastoralists and nomadic tribes may find their land and water resources blocked by new irrigation developments without having a legal recourse. Flood-recession cropping may be seriously affected by the upstream interception of river water for irrigation purposes. Lost land use opportunities[ edit ] Irrigation projects may reduce the fishing opportunities of the original population and the grazing opportunities for cattle.
The livestock pressure on the remaining lands may increase considerably, because the ousted traditional pastoralist tribes will have to find their subsistence and existence elsewhere, overgrazing may increase, followed by serious soil erosion and the loss of natural resources.
The depletion of groundwater aquifers, which is caused by the suppression of the seasonal flood cycle, is damaging the forests downstream of the dam.
As levels fail, it becomes more difficult to extract water and pumps will struggle to maintain the design flowrate and consume more may fenergy per unit of water.The environmental impacts of irrigation relate to the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the effects on natural and social conditions in river basins and downstream of an irrigation timberdesignmag.com impacts stem from the altered hydrological conditions caused by the installation and operation of the irrigation scheme.
Groundwater quality changes as reflected in the chloride content, in mg/L, in the upper part of the main saturated body of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain Figure B International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 1 Assessment of Groundwater Quality Parameters in and around Jawaharnagar, Hyderabad Sarala C, Ravi Babu P Centre for Water Resources, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-.
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